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The Influence of Surfactants on Thermocapillary Flow Instabilities in Low Prandtl Melting Pools

** The Influence of Surfactants on Thermocapillary Flow Instabilities in Low Prandtl Melting Pools**, Anton Kidess, Sasa Kenjeres, and Chris R. Kleijn.

*Physics of Fluids*

**2016**,

*28*(6), 062106.

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### Abstract

Flows in low Prandtl number liquid pools are relevant for various technical applications and have so far only been investigated for the case of pure fluids, i.e., with a constant, negative surface tension temperature coefficient partial derivative gamma/partial derivative T. Real-world fluids containing surfactants have a temperature dependent partial derivative gamma/partial derivative T > 0, which may change sign to partial derivative gamma/partial derivative T < 0 at a critical temperature T-c. Where thermocapillary forces are the main driving force, this can have a tremendous effect on the resulting flow patterns and the associated heat transfer. Here we investigate the stability of such flows for five Marangoni numbers in the range of 2.1 x 10(6) <= Ma <= 3.4 x 10(7) using dynamic large eddy simulations, which we validate against a high resolution direct numerical simulation. We find that the five cases span all flow regimes, i.e., stable laminar flow at Ma <= 2.1 x 10(6), transitional flow with rotational instabilities at Ma <= 2.8 x 10(6) and Ma = 4.6 x 10(6), and turbulent flow at Ma = 1.8 x 10(7) and Ma = 3.4 x 10(7). Published by AIP Publishing.

### BibTeX

@article{ ISI:000379040200016, Author = {Kidess, Anton and Kenjeres, Sasa and Kleijn, Chris R.}, Title = {The Influence of Surfactants on Thermocapillary Flow Instabilities in Low Prandtl Melting Pools}, Journal = {Physics of Fluids}, Year = {2016}, Volume = {28}, Number = {6}, Month = {}, Abstract = {Flows in low Prandtl number liquid pools are relevant for various technical applications and have so far only been investigated for the case of pure fluids, i.e., with a constant, negative surface tension temperature coefficient partial derivative gamma/partial derivative T. Real-world fluids containing surfactants have a temperature dependent partial derivative gamma/partial derivative T > 0, which may change sign to partial derivative gamma/partial derivative T < 0 at a critical temperature T-c. Where thermocapillary forces are the main driving force, this can have a tremendous effect on the resulting flow patterns and the associated heat transfer. Here we investigate the stability of such flows for five Marangoni numbers in the range of 2.1 x 10(6) <= Ma <= 3.4 x 10(7) using dynamic large eddy simulations, which we validate against a high resolution direct numerical simulation. We find that the five cases span all flow regimes, i.e., stable laminar flow at Ma <= 2.1 x 10(6), transitional flow with rotational instabilities at Ma <= 2.8 x 10(6) and Ma = 4.6 x 10(6), and turbulent flow at Ma = 1.8 x 10(7) and Ma = 3.4 x 10(7). Published by AIP Publishing.}, DOI = {10.1063/1.4953797}, Pages = {062106}, ISSN = {1070-6631}, EISSN = {1089-7666}, Unique-ID = {ISI:000379040200016}, }

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